Did you know that as complex and exotic jazz improvisation and scales seem to be, the majority of jazz vocabulary is derived from only five scales?
- The major scale
- The harmonic minor scale
- Melodic minor scale
- whole-tone scale
- diminished scale
That isn’t to say that learning to use them well is easy, but I hope this can dispel any misconceptions about jazz improvisation requiring an encyclopedic knowledge of different scales.
So how can you get so much musical material from just five scales? Well consider that each of these scales have modes. The major, harmonic minor, and melodic minor scales will each have seven modes and seven chords that can be derived from them. The whole tone scale only has one mode and the diminished scale only has two modes because of their symmetrical structure. Therefore they are often used in a parallel fashion.
What’s important is not how many scales you know, but how thoroughly you understand and utilize each of them. If you can do that with just these five scales, you’re well on your way to becoming a jazz musician!